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Linters and formatters

How to activate and use the six Python linters and formatters bundled with Pants.

Activating linters and formatters

Linter/formatter support is implemented in separate backends so that they are easy to opt in to individually:

  • pants.backend.python.lint.bandit: Supports the the Bandit security issue detector.
  • pants.backend.python.lint.black: Supports the the Black code formatter.
  • pants.backend.python.lint.docformatter: Supports the Docformatter docstring formatter.
  • pants.backend.python.lint.flake8: Supports the flake8 style checker.
  • pants.backend.python.lint.isort: Supports the isort import statement formatter.
  • pants.backend.python.lint.pylint: Supports the pylint style and error checker.

To enable linters/formatters, add the appropriate ones in pants.toml:

backend_packages = [

You'll now see lint and fmt goals in the output of ./pants goals.

$ ./pants goals


Use `./pants help $goal` to get help for a particular goal.


fmt           Autoformat source code.

lint          Run all linters and/or formatters in check mode.



How to activate MyPy

MyPy is run with the typecheck goal, rather than lint.

Configuring the tools and adding plugins

Each formatter and linter allows you to configure

  • --version: the version to use.
  • --config: the config file location (relative to the build root).
  • --args: any command-line arguments you want to pass to the tool.
  • --extra-requirements: any additional libraries to install, such as any plugins.

For example:

config = "pyproject.toml"

args = ["--wrap-summaries=100", "--wrap-descriptions=100"]

config = "build-support/.flake8"
version = "flake8==3.8.0"
# Add a Flake8 plugin:
extra_requirements.add = ["flake8-2020"]

Run ./pants help-advanced black, ./pants help-advanced flake8, and so on for more information.


Config files must be explicitly declared

Many tools will automatically discover their config files if it's at a standard location, like isort looking for the file .isort.cfg. This auto-discovery does not work with Pants; you must explicitly set the --config option for Pants to use the correct config file.

(Why? When running the linters and formatters, Pants copies over all the relevant files into a temporary directory. This allows Pants to safely cache the result and to run the process in the cloud through remote execution. Pants will only know to copy the config file into the temporary directory if you explicitly set it with the --config option.)


How to use first-party Pylint plugins

Pants supports custom Pylint plugins written by you. Run ./pants help pylint_source_plugin for instructions.

If you want to write first-party plugins for other linters like Flake8, let us know on Slack.

Temporarily skipping a formatter or linter

Use the --skip option. For example, run:

$ ./pants --black-skip --flake8-skip fmt ::

Tip: only run over changed files

With formatters and linters, there is usually no need to rerun on files that have not changed.

Use the option --changed-since to get much better performance, like this:

$ ./pants --changed-since=HEAD fmt


$ ./pants --changed-since=main lint

Pants will find which files have changed and only run over those files. See Advanced target selection for more information.

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