Union rules (advanced)

Polymorphism for the engine.

Union rules solve the same problem that polymorphism solves in general: how to write generic code that operates on types not known about at the time of writing.

For example, Pants has many generic goals like lint and test. Those @goal_rule definitions cannot know about every concrete linter or test implementation ahead-of-time.

Unions allow a specific linter to be registered with UnionRule(LintTargetsRequest, ShellcheckRequest), and then for lint.py to access its type:

from pants.engine.rules import Get, MultiGet, goal_rule
from pants.engine.target import Targets
from pants.engine.unions import UnionMembership


async def lint(..., targets: Targets, union_membership: UnionMembership) -> Lint:
    lint_request_types = union_membership[LintTargetsRequest]
    concrete_requests = [
            for target in targets
            if request_type.field_set_type.is_valid(target)
        for request_type in lint_request_types
    results = await MultiGet(
        Get(LintResults, LintTargetsRequest, concrete_request)
        for concrete_request in concrete_requests
from pants.core.goals.lint import LintRequest

class ShellcheckRequest(LintRequest):

def rules():
    return [UnionRule(LintRequest, ShellcheckRequest)

This example will find all registered linter implementations by looking up union_membership[LintTargetsRequest], which returns a tuple of all LintTargetsRequest types that were registered with a UnionRule, such as ShellcheckRequest and Flake8Request.

How to create a new Union

To set up a new union, create a class for the union "base". Typically, this should be an abstract class that is subclassed by the union members, but it does not need to be. Mark the class with @union.

from abc import ABC, abstractmethod

from pants.engine.unions import union

class Vehicle(ABC):
   def num_wheels(self) -> int:

Then, register every implementation of your union with UnionRule:

class Truck(Vehicle):
    def num_wheels(self) -> int:
        return 4

def rules():
    return [UnionRule(Vehicle, Truck)]

Now, your rules can request UnionMembership as a parameter in the @rule, and then look up union_membership[Vehicle] to get a tuple of all relevant types that are registered via UnionRule.